Upon completion of this section, you will have mastered the following learning objectives:
- Give five indications for pulmonary function evaluation.
- Identify the major muscles of breathing during inspiration and expiration.
- Distinguish between dead space ventilation and effective ventilation.
- Describe the production and function of surfactant in the lungs.
- Define the following terms:
- Describe the three main components of pulmonary resistance and indicate the overall importance of each of these components in the total resistance.
- Describe the factors affecting dynamic airway compression and indicate the effect of disease states on dynamic airway compression.
- Describe the breathing patterns associated with obstructive and restrictive pulmonary diseases.
- List, define, and give normal values for the lung volumes and capacities in an average adult male.
- Given values for lung volumes and/or lung capacities, calculate other lung volumes and/or capacities.
- Describe the procedures for obtaining a slow vital capacity maneuver and forced vital capacity maneuver.
- Given a tracing of a forced vital capacity maneuver, label the following flow values:
- Describe the appearance of the MVV tracing in the normal, obstructive, and restrictive patient.
- Label the axis and significant points on a flow-volume loop.
- Describe the basic principle involved in measuring the residual volume by each of the following methods:
Closed circuit method
Open circuit method
- Indicate the methods for obtaining the residual volume that takes into account “trapped gas.”
- Describe the significance of each of the four phases of the single breath nitrogen test.
- Describe how the anatomy and distribution of gases in the lungs affect the single breath nitrogen test.
- Describe the purpose of measuring the diffusing capacity and indicate factors which can affect it.
- Indicate three means by which predicted values for pulmonary function studies can be generated.
- Name five primary obstructive diseases and five primary restrictive pulmonary diseases.
- Describe the typical pulmonary function findings associated with obstructive pulmonary diseases.
- Describe the typical pulmonary function findings associated with restrictive pulmonary diseases.